Cheptegei crossed the chalk with a time of 12 minutes and 51 seconds in his first outing of the year. The 23-year-old is also the current 10km world champion.
“Wow, this is really great. I had sub-13 minutes in my mind today so, when my legs felt good during the race, I really decided to go for it,” the 23-year-old Cheptegei said.
“To take this many seconds off the record makes me very happy and is a great first test for me in an important season.”
Frenchman Jimmy Gressier finished in second 27 seconds behind first place.
Controversially, Cheptegei was wearing the Nike Vaporfly shoes – the pair of runners that Eliud Kipchoge wore during his sub two-hour marathon run.
Reports in January suggested that governing bodies were considering banning the shoe due to potentially performance-enhancing qualities. However World Athletics President Sebastian Coe confirmed athletes were still permitted to wear the shoe.
“As we enter the Olympic year, we don’t believe we can rule out shoes that have been generally available for a considerable period of time,” World Athletics president Sebastian Coe said.
“But we can draw a line by prohibiting the use of shoes that go further than what is currently on the market while we investigate further.”